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Republish our articles for free, online or in print, under Creative Commons licence. A study from Harvard has found greater risk of breast cancer in women who live in neighborhoods that have higher levels of outdoor light during the night. For this study, epidemiologist Peter James and colleagues followed nurses in the NHS for breast cancer occurrence from to The home of each ofnurses was geocoded, and the average light level in the immediate neighborhood at night was estimated from satellite images taken by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program.

These estimates were updated over the year follow-up period. The higher the light level, the higher the risk. These findings held even when taking into account many other factors that may also affect risk such as age, number of children, Naughty slutty in Bisho, use of hormone medications and a long list of additional potential confounders.

Of importance if confirmed in more studies, the relationship was strongest in young women diagnosed before menopause. James also conducted many further subgroup analyses after the primary objective of the study had been verified; these subgroup findings may or not be seen in future studies. Two that stood out are that the association was confined to current and former smokers, and nurses with a history of night work. The idea that electric light at night LAN might explain a portion of the breast cancer pandemic dates back to Light is, by definition, the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum, and so it does not include X-rays or even ultraviolet radiation, which can burn skin.

Light is an exposure that challenges the conventional definition of a toxic substance. If a little asbestos is bad for you, more is certainly worse. The same holds for ionizing radiation like X-raysdioxin and lead. The difference is that the effects of exposure to light on human health depend crucially on timing. Over millions of years, we have evolved with a daily cycle of about 12 hours of bright light the sun and about 12 hours of dark.

So during the day, our Girls of the night in Brest expects light, whereas during the night it expects dark. There is Girls of the night in Brest deep biology to thisand electric light is throwing it out of kilter. One perplexing possible consequence of this light exposure is an increased risk of breast cancer in women. Researchers, including me, have been exploring this possible link in part because breast cancer has no single known Girls of the night in Brest cause.

This is unlike many of the other common cancers such as lung, liver, cervix and stomach, for which a major cause has been identified for each; these major causes are, respectively, smoking, hepatitis viruses, human papilloma virus and the bacterium Helicobacter pylori. The rationale for studying the outside light level is the assumption that communities that shine brightly to a satellite at night are composed of people who in general are bathed in LAN: They have greater Girls of the night in Brest in their homeoutside on the street, and for Girls of the night in Brest entertainment in the city.

So, the satellite data are thought to be a surrogate, or a proxy, for this actual LAN exposure to each woman, particularly in the evening before sleep.

Too much evening light can delay the normal transition to nighttime physiology that should begin at dusk. An important part of Local sex finder in Monza transition is a substantial rise in the hormone melatonin in the blood. Melatonin has been shown to have strong anti-cancer effects in lab rats. The shorter the wavelength of the light — that is, light that has more blue relative to other colors — the greater impact on lowering melatonin and delaying transition to nighttime physiology.

My colleagues and I did a similar analysis using satellite data in the state of Connecticut. We also found a stronger effect in younger women, as did another study from conducted among teachers in California.

The studies from Harvard and from California are superior to ours because they both had individual-level data on many more potential confounders than just age, which we did not.

Yet all three studies do point in the same direction. The estimate of elevated risk of breast cancer in the new Harvard study is modest, at only 14 percent for the most highly lit neighborhoods, compared to the least. If true, it would still account for many cases. On the one hand, the apparently elevated risk may be due to other factors that go along with more highly lit neighborhoods, and the LAN actually has no impact. Girls of the night in Brest is called confounding. The researchers included these factors into their statistical models, and it did not change their estimate of the effect for LAN on breast cancer risk.

Another limitation of epidemiological studies, like the Harvard one, is an effect known as exposure misclassificationwhich tends to underestimate the level of health risk when using a surrogate to measure the real exposure. In this case, the satellite images act as a surrogate for actual nighttime light exposure to each woman.

The poorer the surrogate satellite images is correlated with the actual exposure light to eyes of women at nightthe lower the estimate of Free chat rooms online milfs will be from an epidemiological study that uses that surrogate. And it is unclear how accurate a stand-in these satellite images are for actual light exposure Girls of the night in Brest each individual woman.

It would be best to select luminaires that are as dim as possible, and weak in the short wavelengths e. Electric light is one of the signature inventions of an inventive species. But its overuse has caused an obliteration of night in much of the modern world. The loss of night has consequences for all forms of life, including Salt Lake City Utah free xxx porn. And the mounting evidence for a connection to breast cancer is alarming.

This article was updated on August 21 to indicate that the association between light level and risk of breast cancer was found in current and former smokers and nurses with a history of night work. Dealers, collectors and curators: Standing up for minorities in Egypt — York, York. Geniuses, Heroes and Saints: Conserving the Herringham Collection — Egham, Surrey.

Available editions United Kingdom. Artificial light has transformed the night sky, a change researchers continue to link to health problems. Why was the study done?

Shutterstock Too much evening light can delay the normal transition to nighttime physiology that should begin at dusk. Two concerns The estimate of elevated risk of breast cancer in the new Harvard Girls of the night in Brest is modest, at only 14 percent for the most highly lit neighborhoods, compared to the least.

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Read the facts about breast cancer including symptoms, causes, screening, prognosis and treatment options. Artificial light has transformed the night sky, a change researchers continue to A study from Harvard has found greater risk of breast cancer in. A night in with the girls is the Don't worry if you can't make June – any time is a great time for a girls' night in. 2. . helped to detect breast cancer early.