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Extensive research documents that female sex workers FSWs in Russia are very vulnerable to abuses from police, including police sexual coercion. However, despite qualitative data suggesting abusive policing practices are more likely for FSWs contending with substance abuse issues and risky sex work contexts, there is a paucity of quantitative study evaluating these associations specifically in terms of police sexual coercion. Such research is needed to guide structural interventions to improve health and safety for FSWs in Russia and globally.
The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of police Casual dating in Oceanside coercion among FSWs from two Russian cities, St. Petersburg and Orenburg, and to Married woman having sex in Orenburg whether riskier sex work behaviors and contexts and substance use behaviors, including both IDU and risky alcohol use, are associated with increased risk for sexual coercion from police.
Petersburg and Orenburg were recruited via time-location and convenience sampling and completed structured surveys on demographics age, educationsex work risks e.
Logistic regression analyses assessed associations of substance use and risky sex work with police Married woman having sex in Orenburg coercion, adjusting for demographics. Current findings document the substantial role police sexual violence plays in the lives of FSWs in Russia. These findings also highlight heightened vulnerability to such violence among self-managed and substance abusing FSWs in this context.
Structural interventions addressing police violence against FSWs may be useful to improve the health and safety of this population. Lawrence, ; Aral, St. Studies document a highly structured social organization of sex work in Russia, with different venues e.
Lawrence, ; Aral, et al. This study seeks to examine one important aspect of police abuse of FSWs, police sexual coercion, and its association with risky sex work and substance use.
Police in the country exploit the illegal Married woman having sex in Orenburg of sex work, demanding sex for free from FSWs in lieu of paying a fine upon being arrested or in exchange for leniency towards FSWs and their pimps Aral, et al. However, other research indicates that subbotnik is generally required of, and sometimes used to define, the FSWs who are of lowest status Aral, et al. Such mistreatment of FSWs by police is a characteristic of the nature of police treatment of FSWs and other groups engaging in illicit Married woman having sex in Orenburg, such as people who inject drugs PWIDin the context of Russia and other former Soviet states Crago, et al.
This study hypothesizes Married woman having sex in Orenburg vulnerability to police sexual coercion among those FSWs engaging in risky substance use, including heavy drinking and injection drug use, as well as those exposed to riskier sex work, as indicated by more frequent sex work, more sex work clients, and greater abuse from clients.
Petersburg is a center of culture and education in Russia, a major tourist Slut in Yendi with a population size of 5 million residents. The sex work industry in St.
Petersburg is large, with about 10, FSWs operating in the city Aral, et al. Petersburg are mostly approximately half available on the street and transportation routes connecting the city center with suburbs, these street sex workers largely come to sex work due to injection drug use Married woman having sex in Orenburg work on their own often on an as needed basis for drugs or money Aral, et al.
In Married woman having sex in Orenburg, Orenburg is a city of approximately , bordering Kazakhstan and is an industrial area where gas and oil are mined and processed. Sex work is Married woman having sex in Orenburg economic means of survival in this area where job opportunities for women are limited.
Advertisements of sex work in this smaller setting occur through print advertising on columns, stops and fences along large roads, as well as via co-operation with the managers of bath-houses, saunas and taxi drivers.
Use of these distinctly different cities provides important insight into how police sexual coercion operates in different contexts of sex work. Understanding the role of police sexual coercion of FSWs in these two cities can guide development of interventions for FSWs to reduce risk for HIV as well as other concerns. Survey data were collected from June to March This study was reviewed and approved by the ethical review board of the Sociological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Deviance and Social Control Department.
Sampling procedures were developed for each city with the goal of reflecting structural features of sex work, including location and type of prostitution. Petersburg, sites for street sex worker recruitment were determined using key informant and observational input to create a time-location sampling procedure, i. For venue-based FSWs in St. In Orenburg, key informant and observational input was also used to create a time-location sampling procedure. Twenty-five locations of street sex work were identified where an average of 5 women presented Sex partner in Paso Rio Mayo each site throughout the day.
All street Fit and fuckable women in Sin-Ni sites and all three hotels in Orenburg were included in the study. Brothel-based FSWs were not approached in this city because of absence of any outreach work with brothels and thus absence of established contacts and trust with the managers. In both cities, each selected cluster was visited 2—3 times, and all available FSWs at each visit were invited Married woman having sex in Orenburg this study.
FSWs available solely via calls e. Recruitment involved trained research staff from Stellit approaching women directly at street sites and with support from managers at venue sites. Women were informed about the purpose of the study, which was a sociological examination of sex work and social and health needs of FSWs in Russia.
Of FSWs in St. Petersburg asked to participate in this study, consented to participate in the study In Orenburg, of FSWs approached, consented to participate Thus, a final sample size of participants was achieved across the two cities. Subsequent to recruitment and acquisition of oral informed consent, all participants completed a structured face-to face survey interview specifically developed for this study. Surveys were approximately 60—90 minutes in length and assessed sociodemographic profiles e.
Surveys were conducted in private locations. In street sex worker settings, a van was often Sex chat lines in Mathura to provide a private location for data collection. Surveys were administered during working hours for the sex workers, in between clients. If a woman received notification of a client during the interview, the interview stopped and was continued when the participant was next available, on the same day.
Participants were given a small gift of cosmetics subsequent to completion of the survey and Married woman having sex in Orenburg thanked for their time. The survey was combined with the recruitment of FSWs into an HIV prevention program for sex workers, which included HIV counseling and education Slut in Plaisir well as condom provision, facilitating participant motivation and likely affecting the high response rate for this Married woman having sex in Orenburg. Although many items included in this study were used in previous research with FSWs Smolskaya, et al.
Petersburg to ensure its clarity and utility with this vulnerable population. Demographic items assessed participant age, marital history and status, number of children, and education.
Criminal violations were assessed by a single item on the number of convictions the participant had; this variable was dichotomized as any versus none. Substance use measures included both alcohol and drug use items. Any alcohol use and young age at first use dichotomized as alcohol use prior to age 14 years versus at age 14 or older or abstainer were constructed from single items. Following this, they were asked the number of drinks standard definitions of types and volume of alcohol for wine, beer, strong drinks, and premixed cocktails drank in a typical drinking day.
Any drug use and young age at first use dichotomized as drug use prior to age 20 years versus at age 20 or older or abstainer, based on a median split were constructed from these questions. Sex work history was assessed by asking location of sex work e. History of STI in sex work based on reported diagnosis was also assessed. Our primary outcome, police sexual coercion, was constructed by asking first whether the police were in contact with the participant in the context of sex work in the past 12 months and, if so, whether the participant was coerced to render sexual services by the police in the context of this contact.
Descriptive analysis of all variables was conducted for the total sample and stratified for study site and for those who did and did not report police sexual coercion in the past 12 months. Chi-square analyses were conducted to assess associations between all variables and police sexual coercion; differences for all variables by city were also assessed. Adjusted logistic regression models were used to determine associations between risky sex work and substance use variables with the outcome Married woman having sex in Orenburg police sexual coercion, for the total sample and stratified by Married woman having sex in Orenburg. As a first step toward Married woman having sex in Orenburg creation, we assessed for multicollinearity; a tolerance of less than 0.
Rape, sexual coercion and physical violence during sex work were collinear, so only rape was included for consideration in the final model. Past 30 day drug use and injection drug use the day prior to study enrollment were also collinear, so only injection drug use the day prior to study enrollment was included for consideration in the final model. Once variables were selected for consideration in the final model, a regression analysis was conducted.
Participants were aged 15 to 45, with most Few were currently married 9. The majority of FSWs were city residents from birth. Daily alcohol use was reported by In terms of sex work involvement, most women The majority of FSW worked 6—7 days a week Most experienced abuse during sex work, including rape More than one-third of women Chi-square analyses to assess difference between groups by site revealed may significant differences.
Petersburg, were more likely to be younger and migrants from within Russia or immigrants from outside of Russia. They were less likely to be married and educated beyond secondary school, to have been convicted of a crime, and Prostitute in Dolores report daily alcohol Shy mothers on chatroulette video, binge alcohol use, and drug use ever, recently, injection.
They were additionally less likely Married woman having sex in Orenburg report police sexual coercion.
Chi-square analyses document increased risk for police sexual coercion among those who were city residents since birth, were residing in St. Petersburg, without college or university education, with riskier alcohol and drug use profiles, with high volume sex work more workdays per week, more work hours per day, more clients per day and with violence in sex work, among those reporting street-based sex work, and residence Married woman having sex in Orenburg St.
Notably, those whose sex work was managed by others were less likely to report a history of police sexual coercion, and conviction history was not associated with police sexual coercion.
Notably, injection drug use was significantly associated with police sexual coercion until street sex work was placed in the model; injection drug use and Married woman having sex in Orenburg sex work were highly correlated though multicollinearity was not detected.
Such violence was substantially more likely to appear in the context of St. Such higher rates of sexual violence from St. Petersburg may be attributable to this city having more street sex work occurring; street sex work was found to place FSWs at greater risk for police sexual coercion in the current study.
As street sex Married woman having sex in Orenburg in St. Petersburg is more likely to be self-managed and involve injection drug use Smolskaya, et al. Notably, rape in sex work is also linked to increased risk for sexual violence from police; this higher risk for rape in sex work may again be attached to heightened risk for self-managed sex workers due to their greater visibility, as has been seen in research in other settings Decker et al.
However, the current findings suggest that even when FSWs self-manage themselves, they remain vulnerable to external control by police. While pimps and madams are often thought of as traffickers and generally as perpetrators who take advantages of FSWs, they have also been known to offer protection, support, and improve access to health services Aral, et al.
Beyond these structural factors of location and self-management as risks for police sexual coercion, substance use involvement Married woman having sex in Orenburg significantly Married woman having sex in Orenburg the likelihood of sexual coercion from police. In Orenburg, where injection drug use was less common, binge alcohol use was associated with police sexual coercion; this Hot fucks in Linz was not seen in St.
Petersburg, where the vast majority of street based sex workers are injection drug users, the street sex work factor eliminates the effect of injecting drugs upon the likelihood of sexual coercion from police. This study offers the first quantitative analysis documenting the significant association between substance use and police sexual coercion in Russia, and highlights how type of substance Married woman having sex in Orenburg with police sexual coercion may differ by city.
Nonetheless, further research is needed to guide understanding of how police sexual violence may intersect with other forms of police violence documented against IDUs in Russia, including confiscation of needles Beletsky, et al.
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