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The aim of this study was to reveal and discuss occupational health risks, violence against sex workers working in brothels and their working conditions in Ankara. The study included sex workers. Data were collected at face to face interviews with a questionnaire composed of 40 questions about socio-demographic features, familial characteristics, reasons for becoming a sex worker, experiences of violence and occupational health risks.
Twenty-two point five percent of the women were aged 21—30 years and The mean time of education was 5. Fifty-five point eight percent of the women reported that their clients always used condoms, but Fourteen point five percent and Ten point one percent of the women suffered sexual assault while working.
Sex workers, like other people, should have human rights, all types of Slut in Dese that they face should be eliminated and the social conditions they are exposed to should be improved. Sexually transmitted diseases, the most important health risk of sex workers, should be considered as occupational diseases in the new regulations.
Sex workers in most countries are stigmatized, exposed to discrimination and sexual abuse and prosecuted 2. Prostitute in Ankara workers in Turkey, like those in other countries, are outlawed by society, Prostitute in Ankara and their problems are ignored and their health is Prostitute in Ankara for only to prevent diseases in their clients and the public, but not to protect their health.
There are 56 licensed brothels with about 3, sex workers in these brothels in Turkey. It has been reported that Prostitute in Ankara are aboutfemale and transgender sex workers in Turkey. Regulations for sex work in Turkey are directed only towards the working conditions of registered female sex workers working in brothels.
The only regulation for sex workers working in brothels and their working conditions is the Statute of Brothels and Brothel Women and Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases, which was put into effect in and which is still in effect. According to this statute, women Prostitute in Ankara to be at least 21 years old and Turkish citizens to work in brothels. Sex work has Prostitute in Ankara occupational health risks. Sex workers suffer from verbal Prostitute in Ankara physical violence, are exposed to sexual assault and have to work in unsafe places.
Sex workers working in brothels account for the overwhelming majority Prostitute in Ankara sex workers.
Therefore, we aimed to Prostitute in Ankara the occupational risks, violence and working conditions which sex workers in brothels are exposed to in Turkey and to discuss them in the light of the available literature.
There have been few studies on the health status of sex workers, their relationships with society and experience of violence.
This can be attributed to the difficulty in contacting sex workers. We also had difficulty in accessing sex workers and therefore, we Prostitute in Ankara to select sex workers working in the brothels Prostitute in Ankara visiting the Skin and Sexually Transmitted Diseases Hospital in Ankara for screening.
Approximately registered sex workers make regular visits to this hospital annually. According to Turkish laws, all registered prostitutes in the area must make regular visits to this hospital to be screened for gonorrhea, syphilis and AIDS. When women first apply for sex work, they undergo tests for hepatitis B Prostitute in Ankara are vaccinated if they need it.
Cervical cultures are obtained and a test for gonorrhea is performed twice a week and a syphilis test and an AIDS test are made every three months for all registered sex workers. The results of each visit are recorded. The study included out of female sex workers attending the Skin and Sexually Transmitted Diseases Hospital for their routine examinations and volunteering to participate in the study.
Written informed consent was obtained from all the participants and data were collected with a questionnaire at face to face interviews between April and August Approval was obtained from the ethics committee of the Medical School of Gazi University. The questionnaire was composed of 40 questions about socio-demographic features, familial characteristics, reasons for becoming a sex worker and occupational health risks.
Gamma was used to assess associations between two ordinal variables. Missing responses in the questionnaire were not included in the statistical analysis.
Prostitute in Ankara point nine percent of the women were aged between 31—40 years. Twelve point three percent of the women had not even attended primary school, 7.
Sixty point one percent of the women were from urban areas and Sixty-two point nine percent of the women were divorced and Forty-five point two percent of the women came from families with a low socio-economic status Table 1.
Forty-seven point Prostitute in Ankara percent of the women had a work experience of 1—10 years. The mean age of first sexual intercourse was Sixty point one percent of the women had their first intercourse unwillingly. The primary risk factors are problems with condom use, sexually transmitted diseases STDalcohol and tobacco use and frequent abortion. Eighteen point two percent and There was a significant relation between the place where the women were raised and frequency of condom use.
There was a significant relation between the frequency of condom use and work experience. Thirty-five point five percent of the women noted that they had STD. Thirty-five Free lonely wives in Singapore five percent of the women had had Prostitute in Ankara abortions. There was a significant relation between marital status and physical violence due to Prostitute in Ankara request for condom use.
Forty-eight point five percent seven percent of the women were smokers, Fourteen point five percent of Prostitute in Ankara women reported that Prostitute in Ankara were exposed to physical violence by their clients and Ten Prostitute in Ankara one percent percent of the Prostitute in Ankara suffered from sexual assault.
Thirty-four point one percent of the women had a history of suicide attempts. Cross match statistics are shown in Table 5. Childhood physical and sexual abuse, sex work related violence and sex work related suicide attempts of sex workers working in brothels in Ankara.
Sex workers included in this study were vulnerable to verbal and physical violence and sexual assault, experienced different types of violence and suffered from both physical and psychological damage due to the risks they faced. The distribution of Naughty girls nude in Czestochowa women by age showed that In addition, in Turkey the legal age for women to work in brothels is Therefore, none of the women included in this study were younger than 21 years.
Insufficient education is one of the most important factors predisposing to sex work. Gender discrimination is an important barrier to the education of women. At present, unemployment is a serious problem and unfortunately, women with insufficient education have difficulties in finding a job and tend to become sex workers.
In the present study, Prostitute in Ankara mean duration of education was 5. We performed the present study five years after the study by Simsek and revealed that, although the number of the women with no education decreased, there was no change in the number of the women receiving a five-year education. This indicates that the sex workers working in Prostitute in Ankara still had insufficient education. As for the Prostitute in Ankara of work experience, This suggests that the women did not consider sex work as transient but a permanent occupation.
Physical and sexual abuses in childhood are risk factors to become sex workers. Brawn and Roe-Sepowitz commented that low-socio economic status, familial violence, chaotic and insufficient familial relationships, experience of sexual Prostitute in Ankara early in life and sexual abuse were the main causes of prostitution 9.
Many studies have revealed that sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence have negative impacts such as post traumatic stress disorder, depression and suicidal tendency in the short and long term and that there is a relation between early sexual intercourse, considered a risky sexual behavior, and becoming a sex worker 9 — Consistent with the literature, in the present study Prostitute in Ankara conditions are another important factor leading to prostitution 12 — Ward and Day in their study reported that most of the female sex workers had two choices: In the present study, the women had their first sexual intercourse at quite an early age.
Thirty-four point six percent of the women had their first sexual intercourse before they were fifteen and the mean age of first sexual intercourse was Sixty Woman sex tonight in Ravenna one percent of the women were raped in their first sexual intercourse.
The women in Turkey generally do not exercise their right to refuse early marriage and, especially in rural areas, early marriages are traditionally favoured. Many women younger than 18 in the rural areas have religious marriage contracts. Most of the women having their first sexual intercourse unwillingly had that experience as a result of religious marriage contracts in childhood.
In the Sexual and Reproductive Health Study conducted by the Society for Sexual Education, Treatment and Research invalues concerning sexuality and virginity were investigated. In Turkey, sexual intercourse before marriage is not approved.
Social stigma towards women having sexual intercourse before marriage and reactions from their families cause hopelessness in these women and make them feel that they have no other choice except sex Married and looking in Hanoi. As for smoking and substance abuse, In general, the women declined to answer the question about substance abuse.
However, two women were using marihuana and two women were taking drugs. It is striking that the rate of the female sex workers who smoked was four times higher than that of the female smokers in the general population.
Nearly all studies on female sex workers have revealed that the women experience verbal, physical and psychological violence. Lowman in a study in Canada between andreported that 86 female sex workers were murdered and that the murderers of 16 women were clients, one was a procurer and nine were others Consistent with the literature, the female sex workers in this study reported their experiences with different types of violence.
Thirty-nine point nine percent of the women had suffered physical violence from their intimate partners, STDs are the most important occupational risks for female sex workers. It has been shown that the rate of males having sex with sex workers in Turkey is high Of 49 women having STDs, During the one-year study period, 26 out of women examined at the Skin and Sexually Transmitted Diseases Hospital had gonorrheal infection.
The most effective method of preventing STDs is the use of a condom. Client attitudes play an important role in the use of condoms. In a study of the use of condoms in sex workers and clients, the rate of the participants who knew about AIDS and Prostitute in Ankara condoms increased over the years.
In the present study,
In the larger metropolitan areas such as Ankara, Izmir and Istanbul, the rate for the prostitute increases. Sex workers in those areas are able to charge up to $ Understand that in touristy coastal areas young Turkish gigolos are far more common than Turkish prostitutes so don't be too disappointed if. Keywords: Prostitution, sex worker, violence against woman, human rights, sexual Demographic characteristics of sex workers working in brothels in Ankara.