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Raw data from the survey are included in Sexy mature women in Bosnia and Herzegovina electronic supplementary material. The aim of this anthropometric survey, conducted between and in Bosnia and Herzegovina BiHwas to map local geographical differences in male stature and some other anthropometric characteristics sitting height, arm span.
In addition, to investigate the main environmental factors influencing physical growth, the documented values of height would be compared with available nutritional and socioeconomic statistics.
Anthropometric data were collected in boys aged approximately When corrected for population size in the examined regions, the average height of young males in BiH is The regional variation is considerable—from These results fill a long-term gap in the anthropological research of the Western Balkans and confirm older reports that the population of the Dinaric Alps is distinguished by extraordinary physical stature.
Together with the Dutch, Montenegrins and Dalmatians, men from Herzegovina Because both nutritional standards and socioeconomic conditions are still deeply suboptimal, the most likely explanation of this exceptional height lies in specific genetic factors associated with the spread of Y haplogroup I-M The genetic potential for height in this region could then be the greatest in the world.
Future studies should further elucidate the roots of this intriguing phenomenon, which touches an important aspect of human biodiversity. The region of the Dinaric Alps has historically been renowned for the remarkable body size of its inhabitants [ 12 ] and from the anthropological view, it may well be the most fascinating area in the world.
Bosnian soldiers in the Austro-Hungarian army in were Our previous study [ 4 ] pointed out the peculiar genetic background of this regional phenomenon. This Y haplogroup has two main frequency peaks among the Germanic-speaking nations of North-Central and Northern Europe, and in the Western Balkans [ 5 ].
The Western Balkan lineages consist mainly of a specific sub-branch I2a1-P The global peak of I-M frequencies was documented among Croats in Herzegovina The average frequency of I-M in BiH reported by the same authors is The regional variation in height within the Western Balkans has historically been similarly large as in the case of I-M To our knowledge, no later anthropological research has dealt with the regional differences in the Dinaric Alps in detail.
Especially in the late twentieth century, there was a long-term lack of any data. More information started to come in at the beginning of the twenty-first century. The study of Pineau et al. Later, the authors measured even Montenegro Pineaupersonal Sexy mature women in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The work of Pineau et al.
Pilavpersonal communication documented a mean height of The latest anthropometric study in BiH was performed in — [ 3 ] and measured men aged 20 to 24 years, who reached a mean of The most actual measurements of to year-old high school boys in Montenegro Sexy mature women in Bosnia and Herzegovina agree with the data of Pineau et al. Therefore, with regard to the fragmentary and incomplete information about the height trend on the territory of BiH, we decided to conduct a large-scale survey that would cover the whole area of this country and enable a detailed mapping of the regional differences in stature and some other anthropometric characteristics sitting height, arm span.
The primary hypothesis of our study was that the unusual height in the Dinaric Alps is mainly determined by genetics, and environment would play a secondary role. In any case, the identification of regions with the highest values of height would subsequently Slut in Dese a better study of the Dinaric phenomenon. The research in BiH was part of a larger anthropological project undertaken in collaboration with Sexy mature women in Bosnia and Herzegovina University of Montenegro on the territory of BiH, Dalmatia and Montenegro during the years — At present, this project already covers Bosnia, Herzegovina, the entire Adriatic coast of Sexy mature women in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro and Kosovo, where over boys have been measured so far, in addition to several thousands of girls.
Before the start of the survey, in order to obtain maximally representative data covering the whole country, we divided the territory of BiH into regions of comparable size. The situation was more complicated in the case of Republika Srpska, which is divided into 64 municipalities and hence our division needed to be largely arbitrary. The eastern part of Republika Srpska was divided into four regions: Due to the high time demands of this project tied with difficult terrain and the remoteness of some areas, and our goal to describe detailed regional differences in height within BiH, we concentrated on collecting sufficiently Sexy mature women in Bosnia and Herzegovina samples of one sex males and with few exceptions we did not include females.
Because of the limitations of the previous surveys, we decided to target young men: However, because not all students from these grades were always available, the minimum age for the inclusion into our study was 17 years.
Because our study included birth cohorts —, the growth of the measured boys was only marginally influenced by the hardships of the Bosnian war, which officially ended in December To ensure representativeness of our data, we always tried to measure the broadest spectrum of schools, from vocational to elite high schools gimnazija. As a general rule, at least five schools in each big town were visited.
In regions with small towns, the organization of the survey was more demanding, but we also tried to measure at least five Sexy mature women in Bosnia and Herzegovina types of high schools. Our general goal was to incorporate sufficiently numerous samples of at least individuals from each region and hence we always measured all boys who were available. These two regions together make up only 3.
The measurements were conducted using two devices—a mobile stadiometer SECA and a specially constructed apparatus designed for the measurement of height, sitting height and arm span. The mutual compatibility and accuracy of these devices was tested on a sample of 91 Czech high schoolers. The mean difference in the measured height was only 1.
Before the measurements, the students completed a short questionnaire, which included an informed written consent, the date of birth, the place of residence and information regarding the university education of the students' parents.
We supposed that there would be little difference between the place of birth and the current place of residence, because the students were mostly born after the end of the Bosnian war, when ethnic movements within BiH had already taken place. The results obtained during the survey were subsequently analysed using the software S tatistica The data of height for each sample included means, standard deviations, medians, a range of extreme values, skewness, kurtosis and tests of normal distribution Kolmogorov—Smirnov, Lilliefors and Shapiro—Wilk.
Detailed results of the survey with the mean height of boys from all 97 high schools are included in the electronic supplementary material, table S1 ab. Regional averages of male height based on the self-reported place of residenceskewness, kurtosis and tests of normal distribution. The average height of domestic boys was However, regional differences are considerable and hence demographic differences are also important electronic supplementary material, table S3 a.
If we take population size in each region into account, the average height drops to After this correction, the average height is The lowest and highest averages in the 17 regions of BiH differ by 4. This is due to the lower mean documented in Canton Herzegovina-Neretva The average height in Bosnia is considerably lower— Regional averages of male height in Bosnia and Herzegovina based on the self-reported place of residenceincluding average male height in individual 27 towns table 2.
Average male height in 27 towns based on the self-reported place of residence. Only towns with at least 20 measured individuals were included. These irregularities may potentially underestimate or overestimate the true regional mean, but the results are not fundamentally different from the neighbouring areas. The region of Trebinje, which reaches the tallest mean With regard to the large regional differences in height, it is not surprising that various combinations of regional samples produce abnormal shapes of the bell curve, especially in Republika Srpska.
It is remarkable that except for the geographically limited areas along the western border of Herzegovina, we could not collect any other data that would justify the high mean of Sexy mature women in Bosnia and Herzegovina At the same time, our sample from Herzegovina was even larger and the measured boys were on average 1 year older.
The reasons for this discrepancy are unclear. The possibility that height in Herzegovina would drop by approximately 1. As far as we know, not all the data listed by Pineau et al. This suggests that they may have been influenced by non-standard conditions. Still, young men from Herzegovina Sexy mature women in Bosnia and Herzegovina In accordance with the data reported by Coon [ 1 ], the values of average height decrease in the direction to the north from Herzegovina, and the decrease is especially steep Interestingly, our mean from the city of Sarajevo Apparently, the problem must be sought in the much smaller sample size of the latter study.
Although the sample was also relatively small, the boys came from two different schools and their tallness was striking. The demographic and geographical conditions thus made our research particularly difficult. The shortest men in BiH can be found in the north and especially in the northwest, which Sexy mature women in Bosnia and Herzegovina agrees with the information of Coon [ 1 ].
Despite these low values, the available data indicate that the secular trend of height increase in northern Bosnia is very fast. Our sample from Tuzla high schools reached Because the region of Tuzla is the most populous in BiH The number of boys in which body proportions were examined ranged from 62 in Canton Tuzla to in Canton Una-Sana.
Relative sitting height in Herzegovina The values of relative arm span in Bosnia The difference in height between Bosnia and Herzegovina is 2. On the Prostitute in Qingyuan hand, the trend of the relative arm span goes in the opposite direction, from These contrasting tendencies could reflect unfinished growth in some individuals, because at this age physical growth is almost entirely due to trunk growth [ 15 ].
For example, year old boys from Herzegovina make up In other words, tallness is associated with progressively longer legs relative to stature. An opposite pattern emerges in the comparison of height and relative arm span. Higher education may reflect both higher living standards and better parental care. The latter factor was clearly reflected by the fact that height depended mainly on the education of mothers.
Provided that the population of BiH could reach the current living standards of such university-educated families, the average of the whole country Sexy mature women in Bosnia and Herzegovina rise to ca. The effect of education and social status also clearly manifested in taller statures of boys from elite schools gimnazija. These numbers should be taken as an indication of the minimum potential that these populations could reach under optimal living conditions.
The taller stature of rural boys is unusual, because the urban environment should Sexy mature women in Bosnia and Herzegovina superior living conditions.
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